Review of Models for Evaluating Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Land Applied Residuals and Biosolids: An Assessment of Fate and Transport Models for Groundwater Leaching, Surface Water Runoff, and Plant Uptake

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This report reviews available fate and transport models for the three primary migration pathways for PFAS in land-applied residuals: leaching to groundwater, surface water runoff, and plant uptake. Numerous models are available, but only a few are likely to be applicable to PFAS and able to account for their unique and diverse physicochemical characteristics. This review is intended to assist policy makers, regulators, and industry in their consideration of fate and transport models to apply when evaluating potential effects of PFAS in land-applied residuals and establishing appropriate screening values for PFAS in such residuals.

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