Category: Biochar

Evaluating the Effects of Biochar with Farmyard Manure under Optimal Mineral Fertilizing on Tomato Growth, Soil Organic C and Biochemical Quality in a Low Fertility Soil

Rehman I, Riaz M, Ali S, Arif MS, Ali S, Alyemeni MN, Alsahli AA. (2021). “Evaluating the Effects of Biochar with Farmyard Manure under Optimal Mineral Fertilizing on Tomato Growth, Soil Organic C and Biochemical Quality in a Low Fertility Soil.” Sustainability. 13(5):2652. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052652

Abstract: Biochar amendments are widely recognized to improve crop productivity and soil biogeochemical quality, however, their effects on vegetable crops are less studied. This pot study investigated the effects of cotton stick, corncob and rice straw biochars alone and with farmyard manure (FYM) on tomato growth, soil physico–chemical and biological characteristics, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and amount of soil nutrients under recommended mineral fertilizer conditions in a nutrient-depleted alkaline soil. Biochars were applied at 0, 1.5 and 3% (w/w, basis) rates and FYM was added at 0 and 30 t ha−1 rates. Biochars were developed at 450 °C pyrolysis temperature and varied in total organic C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents. The results showed that biochars, their amounts and FYM significantly improved tomato growth which varied strongly among the biochar types, amounts and FYM. With FYM, the addition of 3% corncob biochar resulted in the highest total chlorophyll contents (9.55 ug g−1), shoot (76.1 cm) and root lengths (44.7 cm), and biomass production. Biochars with and without FYM significantly increased soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The soil basal respiration increased with biochar for all biochars but not consistently after FYM addition. The water-extractable organic C (WEOC) and soil organic C (SOC) contents increased significantly with biochar amount and FYM, with the highest SOC found in the soil that received 3% corncob biochar with FYM. Microbial biomass C (MBC), N (MBN) and P (MBP) were the highest in corncob biochar treated soils followed by cotton stick and rice straw biochars. The addition of 3% biochars along with FYM also showed significant positive effects on soil mineral N, P and K contents. The addition of 3% corncob biochar with and without FYM always resulted in higher soil N, P and K contents at the 3% rate. The results further revealed that the positive effects of biochars on above-ground plant responses were primarily due to the improvements in below-ground soil properties, nutrients’ availability and SOC; however, these effects varied strongly between biochar types. Our study concludes that various biochars can enhance tomato production, soil biochemical quality and SOC in nutrient poor soil under greenhouse conditions. However, we emphasize that these findings need further investigations using long-term studies before adopting biochar for sustainable vegetable production systems.

How These Scrap Wood Startups Could Help Colorado Fight Wildfires

Read the full story from CPR News.

If there’s a piece of wood out there, James Gaspard will probably take it. 

The 17 acres his company owns in Berthoud, Colo., is stacked with rejected trees from across the state. The beetle-kill branches and fire-scarred trunks wait to be fed into 100 massive kilns, which look like a fleet of rusty UFOs landing in the farmland below Longs Peak. 

His company, Biochar Now, uses the contraptions to convert wood into biochar, a carbon-rich charcoal that can help soil retain water and nutrients.

Gaspard said the cannabis industry has been an early and loyal customer, but he sees vast possibilities beyond agriculture. In his office, he showed off newer product ideas: cat litter, animal feed, water filters, plastic, soap — all made from wood usually treated as trash. 

“We’re making a market for stuff that had no market,” Gaspard said. 

As Colorado recovers from its worst wildfire season in recorded history, many foresters see entrepreneurs like Gaspard as essential. Products like biochar could provide the financial motivation for fire mitigation products, which reduce fuels but also creates massive piles of unwanted timber. 

EPA Awards Nearly $1 Million to University of Illinois to Research How to Control and Prevent Harmful Algal Blooms

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced $999,377 in funding to the University of Illinois to research how to control and prevent harmful algal blooms (HABs). Specifically, the research will address subsurface drainage systems that can deliver large quantities of nutrients from agricultural fields to receiving watersheds, potentially leading to HABs.

“Harmful algal blooms are a serious and persistent problem across all 50 states that can have severe impacts on human health, the environment, and the economy,” said EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler. “By expanding our knowledge of how to control and prevent the occurrence of these blooms, we can better protect our watersheds—especially our drinking water sources and recreational waters.”

“EPA proudly supports the efforts of the University of Illinois to develop innovative approaches to combat excess nutrient runoff,” said Regional Administrator Kurt Thiede. “This work is vital in improving our ability to control harmful algal blooms and protect water resources for all residents.”  

The project, “Development of a Novel Bioreactor and Biochar-Sorption-Channel (B2) Treatment System to Capture and Recover Nutrients from Tile Drainage,” will produce and scale up an innovative treatment system to effectively capture excess nutrients from subsurface drainage in agricultural fields, recycle the nutrient-captured biochar as a slow-release fertilizer, and keep nutrients in the closed agricultural loop. The project is expected to offer an innovative, feasible, and cost-effective practice to mitigate the loading of excess nutrients into watersheds from agricultural fields, improve water quality, and thereby diminish the occurrence of HABs.

“This process has the potential to be a win-win for agriculture, not only by reducing the nutrient run-off that leads to harmful algal blooms but also by capturing those nutrients and routing them back into fields, leading to increased yields,” said Illinois Sustainable Technology Center director Kevin C OBrien. “It’s our goal to put cost-effective, feasible tools for sustainability in farmers’ hands.”

Seven grants totaling over $6 million were awarded to institutions to address the environmental challenges posed by HABs. Through the development of new technologies and the optimization of existing technologies and best management practices, these projects will assist in reducing excess nutrients that enter the Nation’s waterways and support EPA’s goal to reduce the occurrence of HABs across the United States.   

Preventing and mitigating excess nutrients in our waters, and the HABs that they can create is one of EPA’s highest water quality priorities. In 2020 alone, EPA has awarded Small Business Innovation Research funding to companies developing technologies to better detect HABs, released draft nutrient criteria for lakes and reservoirs, and announced an award of more than $2 million in funding to help states implement plans to that reduce excess nutrients and improve water quality in the Mississippi River/Atchafalaya River Basin. Today’s award marks the largest research grant to date to support a nation-wide effort to prevent and control HABs.

Background:

HABs are overgrowths of algae in water that have the potential to harm human health and aquatic ecosystems. There are several factors that can cause HABs to develop, including excess nitrogen and phosphorous in waterways.

Two-part series on growing bedding plants with biochar and vermicompost

BioCycle has a two-part series on growing bedding plants with biochar and vermicompost. The articles include:

New project uses biochar to absorb excess nutrients from tile drainage

by Lisa Sheppard, Prairie Research Institute

In a new $1 million three-year project, Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC) researchers will develop a bioreactor and biochar-sorption-channel treatment system to remove excess nitrogen and phosphorus from tile drainage water, which will reduce nutrient loss from crop fields to local waterways.

Excess nutrients in surface water contribute to harmful algal blooms that produce toxins and threaten the health of water ecosystems. A variety of treatment techniques have been studied to reduce nutrient losses.

Woodchip bioreactors, which are buried trenches, have proven to be a cost-effective and sustainable solution to reduce nitrate-nitrogen loss from tile-drained crop fields. However, concentrations of ammonium-nitrogen are often elevated after water has flowed through a bioreactor. Also, woodchip bioreactors do not have a significant effect on phosphorus removal.

Principal investigator Wei Zheng and colleagues plan to develop an innovative treatment system by integrating woodchip bioreactor and designer biochar treatment techniques to reduce the losses of both nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients from tile drainage.

Designer biochars are applied in biochar-sorption-channels to capture dissolved phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen simultaneously. Researchers will seek to produce the most efficient designer biochars by pyrolysis of biomass pretreated with lime sludge.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-funded project will evaluate the new system by conducting a scale-up field study at a commercial corn production farm.

Researchers will also apply the nutrient-captured biochars as a soil amendment and a slow-release fertilizer in fields to improve soil fertility.

The results from this project will help federal and state agencies and farmers evaluate their current nutrient management practices, inform science-based regulatory programs, and offer an innovative, feasible, and cost-effective practice to mitigate the excess nutrient loads to watersheds, prevent and control algal blooms, and improve agricultural sustainability.

Media contact: Wei Zheng, 217-333-7276, weizheng@illinois.edunews@prairie.illinois.edu

This post originally appeared on the ISTC blog.

Biochar may boost carbon storage, but benefits to germination and growth appear scant

Read the full story from the University of Illinois.

Biochar may not be the miracle soil additive that many farmers and researchers hoped it to be, according to a new University of Illinois study. Biochar may boost the agricultural yield of some soils – especially poor quality ones – but there is no consensus on its effectiveness. Researchers tested different soils’ responses to multiple biochar types and were unable to verify their ability to increase plant growth. However, the study did show biochar’s ability to affect soil greenhouse gas emissions.

The new findings are published in the journal Chemosphere.

Scientist seeks to capture, recycle phosphorus from tile drainage

Read the full story in FarmWeek.

A research scientist with the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC) is studying one potential strategy to remove phosphorus from drainage tile water, then reuse the phosphorus as fertilizer.

Specially designed biochar, seen lower right, absorbs phosphorus from tile drainage water filtered by a woodchip bioreactor. ISTC research scientist Wei Zheng is studying special biochar as a water filter, which could be used as slow-release fertilizer. (Illustration by Wei Zheng, ISTC)

Specially designed biochar, seen lower right, absorbs phosphorus from tile drainage water filtered by a woodchip bioreactor. ISTC research scientist Wei Zheng is studying special biochar as a water filter, which could be used as slow-release fertilizer. (Illustration by Wei Zheng, ISTC)

ACS Omega: Publishing Diverse Science from a Global Community

Read the full post at ACS Axial. Several of the videos/papers featured in the post will be of interest to ENB readers.

ACS Omega authors are working in labs around the world doing research in both pure and applied sciences across a broad range of chemistry and related areas. Since the fully open-access journal’s launch in 2016, its editors have been excited to publish high-quality research and build connections throughout the global community of scientists.

These 12 videos showcase some of the outstanding research published in ACS Omega by researchers from 14 countries covering dozens of scientific topics. We hope you’ll watch and enjoy, and then read the associated open-access articles to learn more about the research!

Farmers exploring ‘super soil’ as alternative to chemicals

Read the full story in the Rutland Herald.

As any successful farmer or gardener knows, trying to plant in soil starved of nutrients and moisture almost guarantees failure.

Working with soil treated with carbon “biochar,” however, is like working with dirt on natural steroids.

Carbon coating gives biochar its garden-greening power

Read the full story at Colorado State University.

For more than 100 years, biochar, a carbon-rich, charcoal-like substance made from oxygen-deprived plant or other organic matter, has both delighted and puzzled scientists. As a soil additive, biochar can store carbon and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and it can slow-release nutrients to act as a non-toxic fertilizer.

But the precise chemistry by which biochar stores nutrients and promotes plant growth has remained a mystery, so its commercial potential has been severely limited.

Now, an international team of researchers, with key contributions by Colorado State University experts, has illuminated unprecedented detail and mechanistic understanding of biochar’s seemingly miraculous properties. The Nature Communications study, led by Germany’s University of Tuebingen and published Oct. 20, demonstrated how composting of biochar creates a very thin organic coating that significantly improves the biochar’s fertilizing capabilities. A combination of advanced analytical techniques confirmed that the coating strengthens the biochar’s interactions with water and its ability to store soil nitrates and other nutrients.

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