Legal and Regulatory Frameworks for CCUS

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Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) technologies are set to play an important role in putting the global energy system on a path to net zero. Successfully deploying CCUS relies on the establishment of legal and regulatory frameworks to ensure the effective stewardship of CCUS activities and the safe and secure storage of CO2.

Several countries have already developed comprehensive legal and regulatory frameworks for CCUS. These form a valuable knowledge base for the growing number of countries that have identified a role for CCUS in meeting their climate goals, but which are yet to establish a legal foundation for CCUS, and particularly for CO2 storage. Increasingly, existing frameworks are also being tested as more commercial CCUS projects are developed, with important learnings for regulators.  

This IEA CCUS Handbook is a resource for policy makers and regulators on establishing and updating legal and regulatory frameworks for CCUS. It identifies 25 priority issues that frameworks should address for CCUS deployment, presenting global case studies and examining how different jurisdictions have approached these issues. The handbook is supported by a web-based legal and regulatory database, and model legislative text that is found at the end of this report.

See also: CCUS legal and regulatory database, which provides examples of legislative approaches to CCUS from around the world. It is organized by priority issues impacting CCUS activities – such as permitting and authorization or long-term liability – across various regions, countries and states/ provinces. Where applicable, the base legislation from which the relevant law or regulation is derived is referenced and linked.

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