A Circular Economy for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in Mobile and Stationary Energy Storage: Drivers, Barriers, Enablers, and U.S. Policy Considerations

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In this report we analyze drivers, barriers, and enablers to a circular economy for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) used in mobile and stationary BES systems in the United States. We also analyze federal, state, and local legal requirements that apply to the reuse, recycling and disposal of LiBs as well as the legal liability associated with noncompliance. Finally, we provide an overview of policies and initiatives in the United States that expressly address reuse/recovery and disposal of large-format LiBs.

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