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Despite extensive negotiation, insufficient bipartisan support was garnered to obtain inclusion of robust PFAS provisions in Congressional year-end spending legislation. Initially, there was some expectation that U.S. EPA might be directed in the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) to establish maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in drinking water, and/or to designate PFAS as hazardous substances under CERCLA, but those proposals were not included in the legislation. In the absence of a Congressional mandate or U.S. EPA regulatory action establishing enforceable clean-up standards, states concerned about the potential negative health effects of exposure to PFAS compounds have taken matters into their own hands. As discussed, to fill the federal government void, states have set MCLs for certain PFAS compounds in drinking water, required testing of water systems and publication of results, and established remediation requirements for certain PFAS compounds in groundwater and surface water.