Day: November 8, 2012

The Perennial Question 2012: Farmers’ Choices and the Biofuel Future

Download the document.

The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) is a strategic response to concerns under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 about petroleum fuel supplies and environmental sustainability (EPA 2012). RFS2 regulations mandate specific amounts of renewable fuels to be blended into gasoline and diesel…

Analyses of the shifts in land use, crop management, and crop marketing implied by RFS2 typically either neglect or simplify farmers’ choices, whether due to the investigative questions asked, the modeling frameworks used, or the suppositions made in those analyses. Much remains unexplored and, therefore, unknown about the bases for farmers’ actual decisions to dedicate their land, labor, and resources to the production of perennials…

This report aims to start narrowing the gap between science and practice by exploring the bases for a subset of farmers’ choices, specifically those surrounding decisions to engage in perennial planting, management and marketing. We do not assume the processes that farmers’ use to make decisions mimic the calculus of scientific optimization. Rather, we suggest farmers’ behavior patterns, decision-making processes, and decision contexts are important variables that are worthy of investigation and of incorporating into to the scientific and policy-analysis mix. Information about farmers’ choices can provide new depth to scientific analyses that are driven by such policies as RFS2. Perhaps most importantly, a better understanding of the bases for farmers’ choices can provide information important for analyzing and developing a full range of effective policies and interventions.

Recent DOE publications on energy efficient homebuilding

Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/1053737

The Greenbuilt house, is an all-electric, 1980′s era home in the eastern Sacramento suburb of Fair Oaks that was retrofit by Greenbuilt Construction as part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District’s (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration (EERD) Program. The project was a joint effort between the design-build team at Greenbuilt Construction, led by Jim Bayless, SMUD and their project manager Mike Keesee, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration program is to work with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy efficient retrofit measures. The homes remodeled under the EERD program are intended to showcase energy efficient retrofit options for homeowners and other builders. The Greenbuilt house is one of five EERD projects that NREL has supported. NREL’s main role in these projects is to provide energy analysis and to monitor the home’s performance after the retrofit to verify that the energy consumption is in line with the modeling predictions. NREL also performed detailed monitoring on the more innovative equipment included in these remodels, such as an add-on heat pump water heater.

Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/1053737

The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a DOE Building America New Construction Test House (NCTH). This single family, detached house, located in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD, was completed in June 2011. The primary goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark by developing and implementing an optimized energy solutions package design that could be cost effectively and reliably constructed on a production basis using quality management practices. The intent of this report is to outline the features of this house, discuss the implementation of the energy efficient design, and report on short-term testing results. During the interactive design process of this project, numerous iterations of the framing, air sealing, insulation, and space conditioning systems were evaluated for energy performance, cost, and practical implementation. The final design featured numerous advanced framing techniques, high levels of insulation, and the HVAC system entirely within conditioned space. Short-term testing confirmed a very tight thermal envelope and efficient and effective heating and cooling. In addition, relevant heating, cooling, humidity, energy, and wall cavity moisture data will be collected and presented in a future long-term report.

Air Leakage Testing and Air Sealing in Existing Multifamily Units
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/1053748

Envelope air sealing was included in the retrofit of a 244 unit low-rise multifamily housing complex in Durham, N.C. Pre- and post-retrofit enclosure leakage tests were conducted on 51 units and detailed diagnostics were performed on 16. On average, total leakage was reduced by nearly half, from 19.7 ACH50 to 9.4 ACH50. Costs for air sealing were $0.31 per square foot of conditioned floor area, lower than estimates found in the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database (NREMD) and other sources, perhaps due in part to the large-scale production nature of the project. Modeling with BEopt software — using an estimate of 85% of the envelope air leakage going to the outside (based on guarded tests performed at the site) –calculated a space conditioning energy cost savings of 15% to 21% due to the air sealing retrofit. Important air leakage locations identified included plumbing and electrical penetrations, dropped ceilings/soffits, windows, ducts and wall-to-floor intersections. Previous repair activity had created significant leakage locations as well. Specifications and a pictorial guide were developed for contractors performing the work.

Walgreen adds ‘green’ line to private-label push

Read the full story at Reuters.

Walgreen Co is bringing out its own line of household goods with no harmful chemicals, the latest step in its push to add more store brands and differentiate itself from competitors.

Walgreen’s first 24 baby and personal care products, cleaners, paper products, and compact fluorescent light bulbs under the Ology name will hit its more than 7,900 drugstores this week.

The company is hoping to tap into a consumer trend toward products that are safe and free of harmful chemicals, Maurice Alkemade, Walgreen’s group vice president of retail brands and global sourcing, said in an interview.

Beyond awareness: The next step in employee engagement

Read the full story at GreenBiz.

This is the third installment in a series on engaging employees around sustainability. The first part introduced the four stages of employee engagement and the second part discussed the first stage, raising employee awareness about sustainability.

This month’s column will focus on the second stage in employee engagement, Connection, and will feature examples of companies that have successfully reached this stage. By connection, we mean taking a step beyond just presenting information – the first stage – and promoting interaction and a sense of belonging among employees, helping them make the home-work connection, supporting work-life balance and enabling them to share best practices with their peers and beyond.

What does a sustainability career look like?

Read the full post at GreenBiz.

Jobs are the No. 1 thing on many people’s minds these days. The GreenBiz Job Board always attracts a lot of traffic, and every week we engage in conversations with students and executives about how they can snag a job in sustainability or jump to a new role in the field.

In fact, we toyed with giving this debut colum the headline, “Click Here for a Great Sustainability Job,” but we were afraid we might bring down the Internet.

For this column, we want to tell you about, first, the movers, the people who have just taken on new jobs with a focus on sustainability. There are any number of reasons for this. Perhaps most importantly, these are early days for a sustainability or a green “career” and there’s no clear path to follow. We look forward to highlighting some of the great jobs people are taking — and hopefully you can start to see the myriad opportunities that are emerging. In fact, we almost called this column “Stepping Stones” to acknowledge how individuals are advancing in their careers.

But we also want to talk about the shakers, those going beyond their day jobs to work with non-profit boards and serving their governments while still holding down a day job. Or those who are stepping sideways to shake things up in a new way, by launching a new venture or promoting a cutting-edge sustainability initiative.

National Bioeconomy Blueprint

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The Bioeconomy Blueprint will guide Federal agencies—in coordination with one another and in partnership with private-sector entities—to enhance economic growth and job creation, improve the health of all Americans, and move toward a clean-energy future through scientific discovery and technological innovation.

The biological sciences have demonstrated enormous advances in recent years. As a result, economic activity fueled by research and innovation in those fields—the “bioeconomy”—is also growing rapidly, providing an expanding array of job opportunities in both rural and urban environments. In addition to the societal benefits these advances are bringing in health, medicine, and agriculture, and through the development of clean energy sources, researchers are generating a growing spectrum of bio-based products for use in industrial and chemical processes, helping to reduce reliance on petroleum-based products.

Dealing with Data: A Case Study on Information and Data Management Literacy

Haendel MA, Vasilevsky NA, Wirz JA (2012) Dealing with Data: A Case Study on Information and Data Management Literacy. PLoS Biol 10(5): e1001339. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001339.

Abstract: Our scientific body of knowledge is built upon data, which is carefully collected, analyzed, and presented in scholarly reports. We are now witnessing a dramatic shift in our relationship to data: where researchers once managed discrete, controllable building blocks of knowledge, they must now contend with a tsunami of information that paradoxically feeds the growing scientific output while simultaneously crushing researchers with its weight. Numerous national and international initiatives, projects, and working groups have been established to address the data dilemma from multiple angles, including recent Requests for Information from the US Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a US White House announcement of spending US$200 million on “Big Data”. … Libraries have traditionally been the place to acquire information; now they have become the place to learn how to manage it. The eagle-i Consortium, a collaborative resource sharing network, is designed to address both the researcher’s data-sharing needs and the modern library’s new mandate to facilitate and accelerate the discovery of new knowledge. The launch and development of this initiative provides a vivid demonstration of the challenges that researchers, libraries, and institutions face in making their data available to others.

 

 

Locating American Manufacturing: Trends in the Geography of Production

Via Docuticker.

Source: Brookings Institution

From the publication web page:

With the slight resurgence of U.S. manufacturing in the recent years—termed a potential “manufacturing moment” by some—it is important to consider not just the future of manufacturing in America but also its geography. Geographic considerations are, in fact, central to whether the slow growth of U.S. manufacturing jobs during the last two years signals a renaissance of American manufacturing or merely a temporary respite from long-term decline. …

In its totality, this report offers the first comprehensive analysis ever of the metropolitan geography of U.S. manufacturing.

The report begins by situating the present moment of U.S. manufacturing. It continues by reporting a series of often surprising descriptive trends affecting the nature and location of American production. Finally, it concludes by proposing geographic high-road policies for American manufacturing.